Oncology Treatment in Iran
Oncology is a special branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of cancer.
Oncology mainly deals with the diagnosis of cancer, therapy which includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and others.
The most significant diagnostic tool used in the study of oncology is medical history. It includes specific symptoms experienced by the patient and the nature of the complaint. Other diagnostic tools are
Biopsy – a medical test which involves the removal of cells or tissues from the possible area of malignancy for microscopic examination
Endoscopy – This involves an internal examination of the patient’s body by inserting a small scope to view the lesion.
X-Ray, CT scan, Ultrasound –
These are radiological techniques used to examine the patient.
Pathological examination like blood tests is a standard technique to diagnose cancer.
Scintigraphy, Positron emission tomography
These are methods of nuclear medicine used to diagnose cancer.
Treatment of cancer depends on specific cases and the nature and extent of malignancy of the tumor.
The most common methods of treatment are
Surgery – If the case permits, surgery or removal of the malignant portion of the body is removed.
Chemotherapy – It is the use of chemical substances to treat the disease. Often cytotoxic drugs are used for chemotherapy.
Radiotherapy – Ionizing radiation is used as a medical technique to cure and control the growth of malignant cells.
Hormone Manipulation – is mainly used in cases of breast and prostrate cancer
Vaccine – It is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to the disease.
To treat social problems like neglect and alienation, patients suffering from cancer or cured of cancer need palliative care. Physical problems that are associated with the treatment of cancer are pain, nausea, anorexia, fatigue, and immobility.
Symptoms of Cancer
General signs and symptoms associated with, but not specific to cancer include:
- Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin
- Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain
- Changes in the skin, such as yellowing, darkening or redness, sores that won’t heal, or changes to existing moles
- Changes in bowel or bladder habits
- A persistent cough
- Difficulty swallowing
- Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
- Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain
- Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats
Stages of Cancer
There are typically four stages of cancer:
- Stage 0: This stage means cancer ‘in situ’ that means ‘in place.’ These cancers do not spread to other parts of the body. They are located at their place from where they have started. In this stage, the cancer is possible to cure by completely removing the tumor with the help of surgery.
- Stage I: It is an early stage, the cancer is usually small, and the tumor has not developed into the surrounding tissues. These types of cancers do not spread to different parts of the body or the lymph nodes.
- Stage II and III: These two stages define the large size of the tumors. These have grown deep inside the surrounding tissues. This stage shows that cancer has spread only to lymph nodes and not to the different parts of the body.
- Stage IV: This stage indicates that cancer or tumor has spread to different parts of the body. It is also known as metastatic or advanced cancer.
Stem cell transplant:
Stem cell transplant is also known as a bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow is the material inside the bones that makes blood cells from blood stem cells. A stem cell transplant can use your stem cells or stem cells from a donor. New stem cells grow into mature disease-free cells.
No alternative cancer treatments have been proved to cure cancer. But alternative medicine options help with the side effects of cancer and cancer treatment, such as fatigue, nausea, and pain.
Some alternative medicine options found to be helpful for people with cancer include:
- Relaxation techniques
Cancer recurrence is the return of cancer after its treatment and even after a period when cancer cannot be detected is known as. Same cancer can come back again from where it has started to develop, and it can also develop from a different part of the body. The reason for this recurrence is due to the few cancer cells that have been left in the body, as the treatment was unable to get completely rid of them.
Cancer Treatment Aftercare
After the cancer treatment, it is essential to have a strict after care. It is required by the patient to drink clean alkaline water, minimize stress, to eat of the right food and regular check-ups with your doctor. The aftercare also involves the review of physical exam and medical history of a patient. This includes periodic endoscopy, imaging procedures, and blood work. The care after the treatment is very important as it helps in determining the changes in the health of a patient. Many ongoing problems are also addressed that has been caused by cancer or its treatment. Plus it also checks psychosocial and physical effects that may have developed after the completion of the treatment.